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Monads for Mortals



What's a monad?

You'll get a lot of different answers on the definition of a monad, depending on who you ask.

If you want the complete and correct answer, the best way to get it is probably from the source.

Here's my take on it, though...

  • monads are a pattern for composing computations
  • they act as containers for values and computations on those values.
  • you can compose monads together, but those compositions have to follow certain rules.

The fact that a correct implementation of a monad follows some special composition rules is what ultimately makes them useful.

Languages that have verifiably correct implementations of monads as part of their standard library and provide syntactic sugar around their composition (i.e. Haskell, Scala) provide users of those languages a combination of expressive power and guarantees about correctness at compile-time, which is awesome.

So, as I've mentioned in a previous post, monads have been implemented and written about a lot in other languages (like Scala and Haskell) more than in Python. Since Python is the language I primarily use, I wanted to implement my own monad in the language to get a better understanding of the topic.

There are other projects that have sought to do the same such as OSlash and PyMonad but I think the best way to learn certain things is to do them oneself.

Also, as far as I could tell, neither project (or any others I could find in the Python ecosystem) use property-based testing to guarantee that their monad implementations are correct; they seem to use hard-coded values in their test suites to test the monad laws. Note: Please correct me if I'm wrong. I'm not criticizing the projects at all and it could be possible I'm missing something

I wanted to see if I could use property-based testing through hypothesis to programmatically verify that my monad implementation was correct.

After a lot of trial-and-error, the following implementation of the identity monad is what I came up with.

A basic implementation of the identity monad in python.

We use the hypothesis library to test that our monad obeys
the monad, applicative, and functor laws.

Credit to the following publications for definitions, knowledge, and inspiration:
import inspect
from abc import ABC, abstractmethod
from dataclasses import dataclass
from functools import partial, lru_cache
from typing import *

import hypothesis.strategies as st
from hypothesis import given, infer

Scalar = Union[AnyStr, int, bool, float]

Function = Callable[[Scalar], Scalar]

ScalarOrFunction = Union[Scalar, Function]

UnaryFunction = Callable[[ScalarOrFunction], ScalarOrFunction]

BinaryFunction = Callable[
    [ScalarOrFunction, ScalarOrFunction], ScalarOrFunction

UnaryOrBinaryFunction = Union[UnaryFunction, BinaryFunction]

class Functor(ABC):
    A functor is a thing with a map method that obeys a set of rules
    as to how its map method will behave.
    def map(self, function: UnaryFunction) -> "Functor":
        raise NotImplementedError

class Applicative(Functor):
    An applicative is a functor with an apply method
    that follows a set of rules.

    Applicatives also a unit method which will take a normal function or
    value which it will "lift" the value/function into a context/effect.

    We can think sort of think of unit as just a glorified __init__
    def unit(cls, value: Any) -> "Applicative":
        raise NotImplementedError

    def apply(self, lifted: "Applicative") -> "Applicative":
        raise NotImplementedError

class Monad(Applicative):
    A monad can be thought of as a container that obeys a set of laws.
    def bind(self, function: Callable[[Scalar], "Monad"]) -> "Monad":
        raise NotImplementedError

class Identity(Monad):
    The identity monad.

    The simplest of monads. It does nothing but wrap a value.
    value: Any

    def unit(cls, value: Any) -> "Identity":
        return unit(value, cls)

    def map(self, function: UnaryFunction) -> "Identity":
        return map(self, function)

    def apply(self, lifted: "Identity") -> "Identity":
        return apply(self, lifted)

    def bind(self, function: Callable[[Scalar], "Identity"]) -> "Identity":
        return bind(self, function)

    def __eq__(self, other: Any):
        if not isinstance(other, Identity):
            return False
        elif self.value is other.value:
            return True
        elif self.value == other.value:
            return True
        elif callable(self.value) and callable(other.value):
            # in the event we need to compare functions,
            # we assume both functions accept 0 for simplicity's sake
            return self.value(0) == other.value(0)
            return False

# since monads are applicatives which are in-turn functors, from here on I will be defining functions
# solely in terms of monads because my goal is to make this easy to read and understand

def unit(
    value: Union[Scalar, UnaryFunction], M: Type[Monad] = Identity
) -> Monad:
    AKA: return, pure, yield, point

    The purpose of `unit` is to take a value, and "lift" it into a context.
    return M(value) if not isinstance(value, M) else value

def map(monad: Monad, function: UnaryFunction) -> Monad:
    AKA: map, fmap, lift, Select

    Given a monad and a function, return a new monad where the function is applied to the monad's value.

    Note, it's normally bad practice to define control flow using exceptions, but due to Python's dynamic
    nature, we aren't guaranteed to have the necessary type information up-front in order to know whether
    we need to simply apply the function to the lifted value, partially apply two functions, or compose them.
        return monad.unit(function(monad.value))
    except TypeError:
        return monad.unit(partially_apply_or_compose(function, monad.value))

def apply(lifted_function: Monad, monad: Monad) -> Monad:
    AKA: ap, <*>

    `apply` takes a monad and a function lifted in a monad
    and applies the lifted function to the value in the
    other monad
    return map(monad, lifted_function.value)

def bind(monad: Monad, function: Callable[[Scalar], Monad]) -> Monad:
    AKA: flatMap, andThen, collect, SelectMany, >>=, =<<

    `bind` takes a monad and a function and applies that function to the monad.
    The function expects a normal value and returns a monad
    return map(monad, function)

# ---- tests ---- #

def monads(draw):
    """Build us some monads, would you?"""

    scalars = st.integers()

    unary_functions = st.functions(like=lambda x: x, returns=scalars)

    value = draw(st.one_of(scalars, unary_functions))

    value = value if not callable(value) else memoize(value)

    return Identity(value)

@given(integer=st.integers(), f=infer, g=infer)
def test_functor_laws(
    integer: int, f: UnaryOrBinaryFunction, g: UnaryOrBinaryFunction
    fmap id  ==  id
    fmap (f . g)  ==  fmap f . fmap g
    # we will continue to see this pattern where we use our memoization function
    # to make the functions hypothesis generates behave predictably

    f, g = memoize(f), memoize(g)

    monad = unit(integer)

    # I'll put the regular function invocation form prior to the method
    # invocation form of each law from now on.
    # I find that sometimes one is more readable than the other


        fmap id = id
    assert map(monad, identity) == monad

    assert == monad


        fmap (g . f) = fmap g . fmap f
    assert map(unit(integer), compose(f, g)) == map(map(unit(integer), g), f)

    assert unit(integer).map(compose(f, g)) == unit(integer).map(g).map(f)

@given(monad=monads(), value=infer, f=infer, g=infer)
def test_monad_laws(
    monad: Monad,
    value: Scalar,
    f: UnaryOrBinaryFunction,
    g: UnaryOrBinaryFunction,
    return a >>= f = f
    m >>= return = m
    (m >>= f) >>= g = m >>= (\x -> f x >>= g)
    f, g = _memoize_and_monadify(f), _memoize_and_monadify(g)

    left identity

        return a >>= f = f
    assert bind(unit(value), f) == f(value)

    assert unit(value).bind(f) == f(value)

    right identity

        m >>= return = m
    assert bind(monad, unit) == monad

    assert monad.bind(unit) == monad


        (m >>= f) >>= g = m >>= (\x -> f x >>= g)
    assert bind(bind(monad, f), g) == bind(monad, lambda x: bind(f(x), g))

    assert monad.bind(f).bind(g) == monad.bind(lambda x: bind(f(x), g))

def test_applicative_laws(
    monad: Monad,
    integer: int,
    f: UnaryOrBinaryFunction,
    g: UnaryOrBinaryFunction,
    u: UnaryOrBinaryFunction,
    v: UnaryOrBinaryFunction,
    w: UnaryOrBinaryFunction,
    pure id <*> v = v
    pure f <*> pure x = pure (f x)
    u <*> pure y = pure ($ y) <*> u
    pure (.) <*> u <*> v <*> w = u <*> (v <*> w)


    f, g, u, v, w = (memoize(func) for func in (f, g, u, v, w))


        pure id <*> v = v
    assert apply(unit(identity), monad) == monad

    assert unit(identity).apply(monad) == monad


        pure f <*> pure x = pure (f x)
    x = integer

    assert apply(unit(f), unit(x)) == unit(f(x))

    assert unit(f).apply(unit(x)) == unit(f(x))


        u <*> pure y = pure ($ y) <*> u
    y = integer

    assert apply(unit(f), unit(y)) == apply(unit(lambda g: g(y)), unit(f))

    assert unit(f).apply(unit(y)) == unit(lambda g: g(y)).apply(unit(f))


        pure (.) <*> u <*> v <*> w = u <*> (v <*> w)
    u, v, w = unit(u), unit(v), unit(w)

    assert apply(apply(apply(unit(compose), u), v), w) == apply(u, apply(v, w))

    assert unit(compose).apply(u).apply(v).apply(w) == u.apply(v.apply(w))

def _memoize_and_monadify(function: UnaryFunction):
    """Memoize function and wrap its return value in a monad."""

    def f(x):

        return unit(function(x))

    return f

def memoize(func):
    Since functions generated by hypothesis aren't deterministic, this decorator will allow us to make
    them so.
    return lru_cache(maxsize=None)(func)

def identity(x: Any) -> Any:
    return x

def partially_apply_or_compose(
    f: UnaryOrBinaryFunction, g: UnaryFunction
) -> Callable:
    """If the arity of f is greater than one, return a function with g partially applied to f else compose f and g."""
    if len(inspect.signature(f).parameters) > 1:
        # f is probably the composition function
        return partial(f, g)
        return compose(f, g)

def compose(f: Callable, g: Callable) -> Callable:
    def f_after_g(x):
        return f(g(x))

    return f_after_g

def test():

if __name__ == "__main__":



It was head-scratching fun implementing and testing the identity monad in Python.

Although the implementation stops short of being useful, I still think it's informative as a reference.

It might not be a ton more effort to extend the code above to do useful things.

For example, one could inherit from the Identity monad to implement the Maybe or Result, perhaps overloading the __rshift__ operator for monadic bind to provide some neat, untuitive facilities around error-handling.

I'm probably not going to do it myself, though. The reason for this is because although doing so would be an interesting intellectual exercise, I think it's best to stick to a particular language's idioms with respect to things like control-flow and error-handling.

Something else I've come to opine as I worked on this implementation is that you can get pretty far with structures that are "weaker" than monads. For example, python's built-in list may not obey all the Functor laws, but that doesn't mean it isn't useful to be able to map over one.

Similarly, the Rust language may not have built-in monad implementations, but it already provides tremendous value simply by having algebraic datatypes (some with their own syntactic sugar) like Option and Result. They don't need to be complete monad implementations to be extremely useful.